A Computational Explanation of the Universe and BigBang

"What gave these men the right to be considered philosophers, unlike the other astronomers, geographers and doctors who were active especially in the latter half of the period, was their common assumption that the world possessed some kind of integral unity and determinability which could be understood and explained in rational terms. A more important debt to myth appears in the central presupposition that the world is coherent and intelligible, is somehow a unity in spite of the diversity of its appearance."  (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890 about the Msytic Philosophers)


Von Neumann in 1940’s worked on the cellular automata as an abstraction of self replication. Von Neumann's ideas of propagation of information from parent cells to next cycles in a cellular automaton, could be an explanation of the geometry of space-time grid, limitation on the speed of light, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle, principles of Quantum theory, Relativity, elementary particles of physics, why universe is expanding,… and the list goes on. If this simple mechanism could explain so many things, why was it not a prominent field of research? The answer is very simple but at the same time quite unexpected: one of the applications of this post war study of Von Neumann on Cellular Automata was cryptography; therefore his results were classified and still kept as top secret by USA government. However it’s time to look at this subject from a different point of view: Can this mechanism be used to explain the physical universe? we are more interested in the secret of existence than encryption-decryption of text or data; where did all these galaxies, stars, cosmological objects come from, when did it start, what it was like at the beginning of time and space.
Some Constants
Some constants of physical universe have never changed since the beginning of the existence
·         Gravitational constant
·         Planck’s constant
·         The limiting velocity of propagation of information
·         The smallest distance of existence
·         The shortest moment of time
These all imply the simplicity of the initial structure of physical universe.
Before going into explanation of Cellular automaton concept which is the subject of this article, let’s give some figures which will help us understand the scales mentioned here:
Planck’s constant: The Planck constant was first described as the proportionality constant between the energy (E) of a photon and the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave (f). E= h f.
In 1923, Louis de Broglie generalized this relation by postulating that the Planck constant represents the proportionality between the momentum and the quantum wavelength of not just the photon, but any particle. This was confirmed by experiments soon afterwards.

Planck’s length: In physics, the Planck length, denoted λP, is to some scientists the smallest unit of length. It is a base unit in the system of Planck units. The Planck length can be defined from three fundamental physical constants: the speed of light in a vacuum, Planck's constant, and the gravitational constant.
Planck’s time: In physics, the Planck time, tP, is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units. It is the time required for light to travel, in a vacuum, a distance of 1 Planck length. The unit is named after Max Planck, who was the first to propose it.

Cellular Automaton Explanation of  Bigbang

Cellular automata have their origin in theoretical systems described by John von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940’s. The collaboration of von Neumann, considering the notion of self‐replicating robots, and Ulam, exploring patterns in crystal growth, would lead to the first formal description of a cellular automaton. In general, cellular automata (CA) constitute an arrangement of finite state automata (FSA) that sit in positional relationships between one-another, each FSA exchanging information with those other FSAs to which it is positionally adjacent. In von Neumann's cellular automaton, the finite state machines (or cells) are arranged in a two-dimensional Cartesian grid, and interface with the surrounding four cells. As von Neumann's cellular automaton was the first example to use this arrangement, it is known as the von Neumann neighbourhood.[1]
 A one-dimensional CA is illustrated in below Figure (based on [Mit96]) [3]

Illustration of a one-dimensional, 2-state CA (based on [Mit96]). Each cell can be in one of two states, denoted 0 and 1. The connectivity radius is r=1, meaning that each cell has two neighbors, one to its immediate left and one to its immediate right. Grid size is N=15. The rule table for updating the grid is shown on top. The grid configuration over one time step is shown at the bottom. Spatially periodic boundary conditions are applied, meaning that the grid is viewed as a circle, with the leftmost and rightmost cells each acting as the other's neighbor.
Another rule named Rule 30 is a one-dimensional binary cellular automaton rule introduced by Stephen Wolfram in 1983.[2] Using Wolfram's classification scheme, Rule 30 is a Class III rule, displaying aperiodic, chaotic behaviour. In all of Wolfram's elementary cellular automata, an infinite one-dimensional array of cellular automaton cells with only two states is considered, with each cell in some initial state. At discrete time intervals, every cell spontaneously changes state based on its current state and the state of its two neighbors. For Rule 30, the rule set which governs the next state of the automaton and the result of initial steps:
current pattern
new state for center cell

If we increase the number of cycles we see that parts of the picture stabilize but the overall complexity and unpredictability doesn’t decrease. Look at the complexity of the patterns even though we have only used a 1 dimensional CA.
 For space- time  explanation we need 2 more dimensions on the horizontal axis and we need to point out the correspondence of the Planck units with the cell dimensions of the automata. Until now we have not needed any randomness or roll of dice as Einstein described. All we needed was 3 dimensional cellular automaton with a simple rule to start. You may come up with the question that if the rule is too simple where does the complexity of the universe comes from? My answer is that the Big bang need not have happened once, since all the points of singularity at any coordinate in the space-time fabric is equivalent to Big bang and if it happened once why not others happen again, i.e. to stir up some action, or clear away some other action which would cancel some of the patterns.
We believe that the information contained in the ultimate point of singularity, was a limited set of rules which applied to the single cell which marked the beginning of time and space, a moment of time that we can not even think about before, a location in space where we can not imagine beyond, the seed of existence which caused the ultimate explosion, resulting into growth of space-time fabric (which is still growing) with the speed of light. All we need is a simple rule which results in the white noise that we observe when we turn on an untuned TV.
 All of these random like patterns are exactly what the universe was like in the first moments after the BigBang.  Our view of the formation of Spacetime fabric (which we think is still being formed) is nothing more than patterns of a cellular automaton with a tiny cell size with the computational power growing together with the number of cells. From this initial assumption we can easily conclude that the computation of cell states must have had taken place within the cells since immediately after the initial few trillion steps, each having duration of  1 “Planck’s time” (which is still ~1/10 million.trillion.trillionth of a second) the number of cells were so huge that only parallel processing can handle it. The idea that all space-time information was stored in the initial singularity seems not to be logical. The information needed for the complexity of the universe, as we know it now, indicates that after the initial “Big-Bang”, it took other phases of “Smaller-Bangs” to explain more elaborate and more sophisticated patterns of nature including human existence and self awareness.
Here is a possible continuation of the story which we may describe as “Quality Improvement” of the initial product called “Existence”:
In the second phase, nuclear reactions took place at the interactions of stars and galaxies formed in the first phase. These are responsible from formation of essential elements like hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and possibly iron, the basic building blocks of planets like Earth. Almost all elements that we know of are result of this phase.
Dominant activity of the third phase was chemical reactions, evolving into organic materials, and possibly DNA and polymerase enzyme. This pair of self replication may have come into existence on the surface of earth or may be carried by a comet or meteorite from outer space. In either case this was the start of another type of big-bang.
Fourth phase was evolution of life. This time, initial pair of DNA – Polymerase started a pattern of self replication giving way to first living organisms, multicellular ones, evolutionary processes resulting in complexity and diversity of life on earth.  In the mean time the previous phase activities didn’t die out or stop. One example of first phase activity which support the subsequent phases is that a huge planet appeared in Earth’s solar system, Jupiter, which stopped the Asteroid belt from being attracted by the pull of Sun, colliding and destroying the cradle of life: Earth.
The fifth phase was evolution of nervous systems, ability to think, react to external stimuli, to be able to survive in conditions not predictable before existence. Another interesting fact is that each formation of a brain is a form of “Big-Bang” which takes place in the embryos of developed species in which billions of cells are produced identical to the first cell differentiated from others which started to divide and form the brain. This is a phenomenon obeying exactly the same set of rules like the first Plank cell did in the in the First phase.  Brain gave an advantage to the organism, of ability to adapt to conditions that could not be programmed into the genes.
Sixth phase was evolution of consciousness, awareness of existence, ability of speech and communication, development of culture, philosophy and science. The religion was also the product of this stage and resulting from the fact that human mind is in constant search for an explanation for its existence. Therefore we may assume parallel universes being created like in the initial big-bang only as complicated as the brains in the centers of them, since these observers determine and at the same time are shaped by the complexities of their universe. Human consciousness has the ultimate complexity to perceive the common findings of a single miraculous reality. This is when the human asks the question “To be or not to be”
Seventh phase is the conquering the secret of universe and existence. This is where we are.
30.5.2011, Tirana, Albania
Mehmet Zirek

1 Weiss, Robin, http://marina.geo.umn.edu/rweiss/projects/GOLPaper.pdf; 20.4.2009
2-Wolfram, S. (1983). "Statistical mechanics of cellular automata". Rev. Mod. Phys. 55: 601–644. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.55.601.
3-Sipper, Moshe, http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~sipper/ca.html


Project Proposal to NASA

If I were NASA I would think of sending a Lunar non human mission to install robotic lighting instruments to the visible (near) side  of the moon, for terrestrial telescopes to detect messages information and "even advertisements" especially when these instruments are shadowed by earth during the crescent phase. 

Possible project of this type may cost around 300 Million USD (almost cost of a bridge or a highway) which would have immense returns of different nature including:

1- Increased awareness of public about Space missions
2- Proof of Lunar landing
3- Advertisements via radio controlled light emissions (text or even simple video)
4- Research data on Lunar installation of renewable energy systems for a future moon station

Any of the above would be worth the cost, but more than all is
5- Having the honor of first permanently operating lunar system...

The project would involve activating solar panels to collect energy during the solar exposure phase and turning on the lighting instruments during the shadowed phase. All it would require is NASA radio control station to operate it (them) and telescope(s) for the public to observe the operation.


Hayali's "He Who Decorated the Universe"

He Who Decorated the Universe

Following is a poem of one of the most famous Ottoman Lyric Poets, Hayali (meaning - Imaginative)
Original form (in Ottoman Turkish), Modern Turkish and English translations are given below.
The poem is mentioning about the near blindness in search of Allah, since Allah is so close to us and is everywhere. This is poem is a classical example of metaphysical interpreatation of the nature of Universe.
Hayali is an Ottoman poet born in Balkans (Vardar) around year 1496 in the reign of Bayezid II. Has become very famous for his highly imaginative poems and very modest and simple lifestyle in Edirne where he died in 1556

Original Version:

Cihân-ârâ cihân îçindedir ârâyı bilmezler
O mâhîler ki deryâ içredir deryâyı bilmezler

Harâbât ehline dûzah azâbın anma iyi zâhid
Ki bunlar ibn-i vakt oldu gam-ı ferdâyı bilmezler

Şafak-gûn kan içinde dâğını seyretse âşıklar
Güneşte zerre görmezler felekte âyı bilmezler

Hamîde kadlerîne rişte-i eşgi takub bunlar
Atarlar tîr-i maksûdû nendendir yâyı bilmezler

Hayâlî fakr şâlına çekenler cism-i uryânı
Anınlâ fahrederler atlas ü dîbâyı bilmezler

Modern Turkish translation:

Cihanı bezeyen cihan içindedir aramayı bilmezler
O balıklar ki derya içredir deryayı bilmezler

Meyhane erbabına cehennem acısını anma ey zahid
Ki bunlar zamanın kendi oldu yarınki acıyı bilmezler

Şafak renkli kan içinde yaralarını seyretse âşıklar
Güneşte zerre görmezler gökte ayı bilmezler

Eğri boylarına gözyaşı ipliklerini takıp bunlar
Atarlar dilek oklarını nedendir yayı bilmezler

Hayâlî dervişlik hırkasına çekenler çıplak vücutlarını
Onunla övünürler atlası ipekli giysiyi bilmezler

Translated into English:
He who decorated the universe is inside the universe they don't know how to look for...
They are like those fishes which are in the sea but are not aware of the sea

Do not tell the suffering of hell to the fellows of tavern, o bigot!
They have become the time itself, they don't know the suffering of the future

When they watch their  wounds painted with color of the dawn
They don't see anything in sunlight, they don't see moon on the sky

They attach the string of tears to the bent hulls of themselves
Send the arrows of wishes but are not aware of the bow

Wrap their naked bodies with the imaginary(hayali) cardigan of dervishdom
Are proud of it and don't know the clothes made of silk


Social Waves and a proposed model

The impact analysis of social waves as described by Alvin Toffler in his work “The Third Wave”  can be graphed as wave function of a sinusoidal wave in a non-uniform medium with loss where horizontal axis is time and vertical axis as impact on the society in terms of social stability. The down turns result from wars, social conflicts and crisis.  We can use this function as a basis for estimate and we can predict two features of the coming wave
1-The time between Information age and the fourth wave will be approximately 20 years (each wave taking less time)
2-The impact on the society and down and upturns will have less impact (the first waves resulted in big wars like Crusades (end of agricultural era), First and Second World war (End of Industrial revolution) ,  Financial Crisis (end of Information age)
Based on this model and observations on the society, we have a vision that first 20 years of 21st Century will be the Quality Standardization era. Already a big revolution in Quality Management took place in year 2000 when ISO has proposed 9000 Quality Management System with empowerment and sustainability as a global vision.
We think that society will stabilize itself into the ideal state with the sustainable, environment, high quality standards and fairplay in the business and economics.
Quality Standards will be unified by using the third wave (Information) technology and locally implemented using the fourth wave (Quality) management systems to form the idealized environment what we call "Qualitopia*"
This will be the realization of human dream of Plato, Lao Tse, More, Von Neumann, Juran, Deming and many others.

*link for Qualitopia:
Qualitopia, the Quest for Perfection Through Quality Management Principles (January 6, 2010). Available at SSRN:


Three Hodja Stories

Following stories about Nasreddin Hodja is taken from hundreds of them which are probably the collective creation of the 13th century Mid Anatolia. I have chosen three stories to give you the general characteristics of these people.  The atmosphere of these stories continues to determine the culture of the region which includes, with minor differences, all of modern Turkey, Balkans, most of Middle East and even some parts of central Asia.


One day, Hodja lost his donkey again. He rushed to the marketplace and announced,
“whoever finds and bring my donkey to me will have it, including its saddle.” Everybody was surprised.
“If you are going to give your donkey to the person who finds it then why are you looking for it?” they asked, “But, ah!!” said Hodja, “You don't know how good it feels to find something you’ve lost”


Hodja sitting by the window and he saw a funeral procession coming
down the street. Relatives of the deceased were crying and wailing
“Oh! You are going to a dark place where there is no light or fire,
no Food or water. Oh!”
‘ Hodja turned to his wife and said,
“Quick!  Go and lock our door.  They must be bringing the deceased
to our house”


While Hodja was walking in the street somebody approached him and slapped him on the back of his neck. He was hurt badly so he wouldn't accept the man's apology. He took the man to the judge not knowing that the man was a close friend of him. The judge tried to convince Hodja to accept the man’s apology but Hodja was adamant. The judge finally said,
“O.K. I have decided. This man will pay one akçe to Hodja,” and signalled to the man,
“You go and bring the money.”
The man left. Hodja waited and waited for the man to return and finally ran out of patience. He approached the judge who was reading the paper in front of him, and slapped him on the neck. He then told the judge,
“I have some business to attend to, so I am leaving. You go ahead and take the akçe instead of me.”

For further reading : http://u.cs.biu.ac.il/~schiff/Net/front.html


Internet, the New Challenge

Internet has become the new environment for another type of life form. More and more people are “addicted” to social networks and other internet activities like multiplayer games. These are claiming increasingly higher percentage of lives of still increasing percentage of humans. This double increasing mechanism can be compared to the positive feedback of “reproduction” cycle.

Some genetic algorithms started to run on the internet to create sustaining patterns to reproduce. These patterns have their own lifecycle, consisting of birth, growth, reproduction and death. What is interesting for me is that with the communication technology and growing penetration of internet, these “living patterns” have what we can call their own way of “thinking” and “behavior”.

This is not the psychology individuals forming the pattern, what is determining the behavior of these patterns is the psychology of each of these. Although individuals in the group can be very calm, moderate and average in many ways, these patterns can be aggressive and invasive or individuals can be radical and emotional but the pattern can be less dominant than others (which is usually the case)

Human psychology and human needs are not enough to explain the phenomenon described here. The science of sociology can be used to some extent, but not in enough depth, since almost all the terms and methods of this science is based on assumptions of human interactions of another type, what we call “pre-internet”

Human being on this world has lived for at least a couple of hundred thousands of years, keeping most of his psychological and physiological form as it is. There is no significant human evolution. However there’s a highly versatile set of built in defense mechanisms of humans which enabled them to sustain their lives more or less the same way for so much time. These defense mechanisms of humans, both physical and psychological are very similar to our ancestors. The only addition to this initial pattern is the science which evolved to protect human life form from the other life forms and mostly from one group of humans from others.

On 21st century, new life form on the internet is the next big threat on the “human” life style and form. Of course the social sciences will evolve to grow extensions more and more into the world of internet, to understand and describe the self creation of patterns on the internet. This is one type of human defense against this invasive life form. We (as humans) notice and decide to understand the chain of events.

However this is exactly the dangerous part of this new threat. The internet addiction is not fighting back the scientific human approach in the classical way. On the contrary it is “rewarding” this approach. Different from the TV addiction phenomenon of 20th century, internet is giving false feeling of satisfaction and reward to the curious mind. People were “bored” of TV after some time depending on the educational level and sophistication. There was no or very limited interaction, therefore it didn’t contain enough satisfaction for human mind, but internet is attracting them to a jungle where they can continue having small rewards of social interaction which creates packets of psychological satisfaction.

The importance of this phenomenon comes from the fact that possible outcome of this new interaction forms a wide spectrum. On one end of this spectrum is total destruction of human life cycle turning our world into a “Brave New World” on the other end, it may create a utopia of infinitely connected heavenly society. Probably it will result in something similar to symbiosis of “TV networks” and “human masses” which continued nearly all 20th century, but a more resistant one which may require some human adaptation. Let’s hope for the human psychological defense mechanisms such as “boredom of false rewards” and need for “true intellectual and philosophical satisfaction” stand against this new wave of invasive life form fed with the “curiosity” and “reward seeking” nature of our minds.


Last Night

Last night I wept silently alone,
My tears didn't fall, instead they flew
towards children whose hopes are postponed to another life
and towards ones whose destiny ripped into their bodies in metal form
Last night I wept silently
one drop magnified you on my wall
permanently painting the moment we were eye to eye
that moment
I prefer to the moment of having you when losing you starts
Last night I wept
to wash my blade and walls of the castles inside
the blade should scare enemies but cuts my heart instead
and the castles shining in glamor but not strong enough to stand against bombards of your eyes
Last night